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Photovoltaic is the conversion of solar energy into electric current by use of photoactive semiconductor materials which exhibit the photovoltaic characteristic, a phenomenon most fully studied in chemistry, photochemistry, and electrical engineering. Photovoltaic devices are fabricated using wafer-thin layers of crystalline materials called photovoltaic chips. These chips are then layered in a high-unity thin-film material such as silicon to form a material called a crystalline photovoltaic module (CPMC). The CPMCs are interconnected in series to create an array of PV panels ( Photovoltaic Power Cells ) or modules which can collectively provide the energy needed for the electric production needed in an application. The photovoltaic modules are packaged together in an array in order to create a power generating system (PVOS) or array of solar panels (Parabolic PV module).

The production of photovoltaic cells starts with the fabrication of the wafer-thin crystalline semiconductor layers which are deposited on a substrate which has a high polish to allow for a smooth transfer of the crystalline surface to the semiconducting wafers. The crystals grow thicker as the wafer layer grows closer to the substrate. Crystal growth is controlled using mechanical or chemical means to control the height of the crystal growth, allowing the wafer to be carefully deposited onto the crystalline substrate. When the wafer is completed growing, the prisms on the back of the device need to have a smooth finish so that there are no crystal ends to catch on anything. The crystalline device is then wrapped in a clear covering such as silicon dioxide to improve its electrical properties. Electrical contacts are soldered to the crystalline contacts to enable them to be activated when electricity is applied to the crystalline devices.

Solar cells are connected in series to form a PV module. PV modules are made by carefully building up small PV cells which are connected together in series to form a PV module. PV modules are wired together diagonally so that the vertical components are even. There are two types of modules: active and passive. An active photovoltaic module is one which directly produces electricity. A passive photovoltaic module is one which stores electricity produced by the solar cells into batteries, which can then be used immediately.

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